SESSION: Technical Papers

SESSION: Navigation & Locomotion

Out-of-body Locomotion: Vectionless Navigation with a Continuous Avatar Representation

  • Nathan Navarro Griffin
  • Eelke Folmer

Teleportation is a popular and low risk means of navigating in VR. Because teleportation discontinuously translates the user’s viewpoint, no optical flow is generated that could lead to vection-induced VR sickness. However, instant viewpoint translations and resulting discontinuous avatar representation is not only detrimental to presence and spatial awareness but also presents a challenge for gameplay design–particularly for multiplayer games. We compare out-of-body locomotion, a hybrid viewpoint technique that lets users seamlessly switch between a first-person and third-person avatar view, to traditional pointer-based teleportation. While in third-person, if the user doesn’t move, the camera remains stationary to avoid any optical flow generation. Third-person also lets users precisely and continuously navigate their avatar without risk of getting VR sick. The viewpoint automatically switches back to first-person as soon the users breaks line of sight with their avatar or the user requests to rejoin the avatar with a button press. A user study compares out-of-body locomotion to teleportation with participants (n=22) traversing an obstacle course. Results show that out-of-body locomotion requires significantly fewer (67%) viewpoint transitions than teleportation while there was no significant difference in performance. In addition to being able to offer a continuous avatar representation, participants also deemed out-of-body locomotion to be faster.

Obstacle Detection and Alert System for Smartphone AR Users

  • HyeongYeop Kang
  • Geonsun Lee
  • JungHyun Han

This paper presents an obstacle detection and alert system for the pedestrians who use smartphone AR applications. The system analyzes the input camera image to extract feature points and determines whether the feature points come from obstacles ahead in the path. With the obstacle detector, two experiments were made. The first investigated the obstacle alert interfaces, and the second investigated the orientation guide interfaces that instruct users to hold their smartphones with some angles/orientations appropriate to capture the environment. Then, the best interfaces identified from the experiments were integrated and tested to examine their usability and user experiences.

Sensitivity to Rate of Change in Gains Applied by Redirected Walking

  • Ben J Congdon
  • Anthony Steed

Redirected walking allows for natural locomotion in virtual environments that are larger than a user’s physical environment. The mapping between real and virtual motion is modified by scaling some aspect of motion. As a user traverses the virtual environment these modifications (or gains) must be dynamically adjusted to prevent collision with physical obstacles. A significant body of work has established perceptual thresholds on rates of absolute gain, but the effect of changing gain is little understood.

We present the results of a user study on the effects of rate of gain change. A psychophysical experiment was conducted with 21 participants. Each participant completed a series of two-alternative forced choice tasks in which they determined whether their virtual motion differed from their physical motion while experiencing one of three different methods of gain change: sudden gain change, slow gain change and constant gain. Gain thresholds were determined by 3 interleaved 2-up 1-down staircases, one per condition. Our results indicate that slow gain change is significantly harder to detect than sudden gain change.

SESSION: Avatars

Lower body control of a semi-autonomous avatar in Virtual Reality: Balance and Locomotion of a 3D Bipedal Model

  • Vincent Thomasset
  • Stéphane Caron
  • Vincent Weistroffer

Animated virtual humans may rely on full-body tracking system to reproduce user motions. In this paper, we reduce tracking to the upper-body and reconstruct the lower body to follow autonomously its upper counterpart. Doing so reduces the number of sensors required, making the application of virtual humans simpler and cheaper. It also enable deployment in cluttered scenes where the lower body is often hidden. The contribution here is the inversion of the well-known capture problem for bipedal walking. It determines footsteps rather than center-of-mass motions and yet can be solved with an off-the-shelf capture problem solver. The quality of our method is assessed in real-time tracking experiments on a wide variety of movements.

Technologies for Social Augmentations in User-Embodied Virtual Reality

  • Daniel Roth
  • Gary Bente
  • Peter Kullmann
  • David Mal
  • Chris Felix Purps
  • Kai Vogeley
  • Marc Erich Latoschik

Technologies for Virtual, Mixed, and Augmented Reality (VR, MR, and AR) allow to artificially augment social interactions and thus to go beyond what is possible in real life. Motivations for the use of social augmentations are manifold, for example, to synthesize behavior when sensory input is missing, to provide additional affordances in shared environments, or to support inclusion and training of individuals with social communication disorders. We review and categorize augmentation approaches and propose a software architecture based on four data layers. Three components further handle the status analysis, the modification, and the blending of behaviors. We present a prototype (injectX) that supports behavior tracking (body motion, eye gaze, and facial expressions from the lower face), status analysis, decision-making, augmentation, and behavior blending in immersive interactions. Along with a critical reflection, we consider further technical and ethical aspects.

Avatar Type Affects Performance of Cognitive Tasks in Virtual Reality

  • Ye Pan
  • Anthony Steed

Current consumer virtual reality applications typically represent the user by an avatar comprising a simple head/torso and decoupled hands. In the prior work of Steed et al. it was shown that the presence or absence of an avatar could have a significant impact on the cognitive load of the user. We extend that work in two ways. First they only used a full-body avatar with articulated arms, so we add a condition with hands-only representation similar to the majority of current consumer applications. Second we provide a real-world benchmark so as to start to get at the impact of using any immersive system. We validate the prior results: real and full body avatar performance on a memory task is significantly better than no avatar. However the hands only condition is not significantly different than either these two extremes. We discuss why this might be, in particular we discuss the potential for a individual variation in response to the embodiment level.

SESSION: Engagement

Being More Focused and Engaged in Firefighting Training: Applying User-Centered Design to VR System Development

  • Seung-Gon Jeon
  • Jaeho Han
  • Yonggeol Jo
  • Kyungsik Han

Although virtual reality (VR) programs to provide firefighting training continue to be developed and adopted, our investigation with 15 firefighters indicates that a current VR training system tends to convey behavioral tips and does not sufficiently reflect actual firefighters’ needs and realities in the field. It often provides somewhat simplified fire simulations and actually lowers the effectiveness of the training. In this paper, we employ Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) methods to examine and identify core elements in firefighting scenarios and develop a VR system that incorporates such elements. We evaluate our system with respect to presence and three design components of the VR simulation (i.e., reality, meaning, play) through a user study with 22 participants. Our study results demonstrate greater user experience and perception toward the four elements in firefighting training with our VR system compared to the existing one. We discuss design implications (e.g., move control, degree of freedom, sight hindrance by smoke, unexpected events) of our study that are expected to help implement and provide an effective VR training system for firefighters.

Fearing Disengagement from the Real World

  • Ceenu George
  • Julia Schwuchow
  • Heinrich Hussmann

With the adoption of mobile head mounted displays (HMDs) amongst non-experts outside of lab settings, it becomes increasingly important to understand what factors influence a holistic mobile virtual reality (MVR) user experience. We present the results of a field study (N=34), in which we used three methods - a drawing task, a storytelling exercise, and the technology acceptance questionnaire (TAM) - to explore factors, beyond technical capability, that influence the user experience of HMDs. Our analysis (1) highlights factors that designers and researchers can adopt to create and evaluate socially acceptable MVR systems for non-expert users outside a lab context, and (2) puts these factors in context with existing research from industry and academia.

SESSION: Collaboration

Immersive Insights: A Hybrid Analytics System forCollaborative Exploratory Data Analysis

  • Marco Cavallo
  • Mishal Dolakia
  • Matous Havlena
  • Kenneth Ocheltree
  • Mark Podlaseck

In the past few years, augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies have experienced terrific improvements in both accessibility and hardware capabilities, encouraging the application of these devices across various domains. While researchers have demonstrated the possible advantages of AR and VR for certain data science tasks, it is still unclear how these technologies would perform in the context of exploratory data analysis (EDA) at large. In particular, we believe it is important to better understand which level of immersion EDA would concretely benefit from, and to quantify the contribution of AR and VR with respect to standard analysis workflows.

In this work, we leverage a Dataspace reconfigurable hybrid reality environment to study how data scientists might perform EDA in a co-located, collaborative context. Specifically, we propose the design and implementation of Immersive Insights, a hybrid analytics system combining high-resolution displays, table projections, and augmented reality (AR) visualizations of the data.

We conducted a two-part user study with twelve data scientists, in which we evaluated how different levels of data immersion affect the EDA process and compared the performance of Immersive Insights with a state-of-the-art, non-immersive data analysis system.

Adventures in Hologram Space: Exploring the Design Space of Eye-to-eye Volumetric Telepresence

  • Rafael Kuffner dos Anjos
  • Maurício Sousa
  • Daniel Mendes
  • Daniel Medeiros
  • Mark Billinghurst
  • Craig Anslow
  • Joaquim Jorge

Modern volumetric projection-based telepresence approaches are capable of providing realistic full-size virtual representations of remote people. Interacting with full-size people may not be desirable due to the spatial constraints of the physical environment, application context, or display technology. However, the miniaturization of remote people is known to create an eye gaze matching problem. Eye-contact is essential to communication as it allows for people to use natural nonverbal cues and improves the sense of “being there”. In this paper we discuss the design space for interacting with volumetric representations of people and present an approach for dynamically manipulating scale, orientation and the position of holograms which guarantees eye-contact. We created a working augmented reality-based prototype and validated it with 14 participants.

Exploring the Use of a Robust Depth-sensor-based Avatar Control System and its Effects on Communication Behaviors

  • Yuanjie Wu
  • Yu Wang
  • Sungchul Jung
  • Simon Hoermann
  • Robert W. Lindeman

To interact as fully-tracked avatars with rich hand gestures in Virtual Reality (VR), we often need to wear a tracking suit or attach extra sensors on our bodies. User experience and performance may be impacted by the cumbersome devices and low fidelity behavior representations, especially in social scenarios where good communication is required. In this paper, we use multiple depth sensors and focus on increasing the behavioral fidelity of a participant’s virtual body representation. To investigate the impact of the depth-sensor-based avatar system (full-body tracking with hand gestures), we compared it against a controller-based avatar system (partial-body tracking with limited hand gestures). We designed a VR interview simulation for a single user to measure the effects on presence, virtual body ownership, workload, usability, and perceived self-performance. Specifically, the interview process was recorded in VR, together with all the verbal and non-verbal cues. Subjects then took a third-person view to evaluate their previous performance. Our results show that the depth-sensor-based avatar control system increased virtual body ownership and also improved the user experience. In addition, users rated their non-verbal behavior performance higher in the full-body depth-sensor-based avatar system.

SESSION: Haptics

Investigating the Detection of Bimanual Haptic Retargeting in Virtual Reality

  • Eric J. Gonzalez
  • Sean Follmer

Haptic retargeting is a virtual reality (VR) interaction technique enabling virtual objects to be ”remapped” to different haptic proxies by offsetting the user’s virtual hand from their physical hand. While researchers have investigated single-hand retargeting, the effects of bimanual interaction in the context of haptic retargeting have been less explored. In this study, we present an evaluation of perceptual detection rates for bimanual haptic retargeting in VR. We tested 64 combinations of simultaneous left- and right-hand retargeting ranging from − 24° to + 24° offsets and found that bimanual retargeting can be more noticeable to users when the hands are redirected in different directions as opposed to the same direction.

ElectroCutscenes: Realistic Haptic Feedback in Cutscenes of Virtual Reality Games Using Electric Muscle Stimulation

  • Mohamed Khamis
  • Nora Schuster
  • Ceenu George
  • Max Pfeiffer

Cutscenes in Virtual Reality (VR) games enhance story telling by delivering output in the form of visual, auditory, or haptic feedback (e.g., using vibrating handheld controllers). Since they lack interaction in the form of user input, cutscenes would significantly benefit from improved feedback. We introduce the concept and implementation of ElectroCutscenes, where Electric Muscle Stimulation (EMS) is leveraged to elicit physical user movements to different body parts to correspond to those of personal avatars in cutscenes of VR games while the user stays passive. Through a user study (N=22) in which users passively received kinesthetic feedback resulting in involuntarily movements, we show that ElectroCutscenes significantly increases perceived presence and realism compared to controller-based vibrotactile and no haptic feedback. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence that combining visual and EMS feedback can evoke movements that are not actuated by either of them alone. We discuss how to enhance realism and presence of cutscenes in VR games even when EMS can partially rather than completely actuate the desired body movements.

SESSION: Simulation & Graphics

A Hybrid Method for Powdered Materials Modeling

  • Yang Gao
  • Yinghao Xu
  • Shuai Li
  • Aimin Hao
  • Hong Qin

Powdered materials, such as sand and flour, are quite common in nature, whose properties always range from granular particles to smog materials under the air friction while throwing. This paper presents a hybrid method that tightly couples APIC solver with density field to accomplish the transformation of continuous powdered materials varying among granular particles, smog, powders and their natural mixtures. In our method, a part of the granular particles will be transformed to dust smog while interacting with air and represented by density field, then, as velocity decreases the density-based dust will deposit to powder particles. We construct a unified framework to imitate the mutual transformation process for the powdered materials of different scales, which greatly enhance the details of particle-based materials modeling. We have conducted extensive experiments to verify the performance of our model, and get satisfactory results in terms of stability, efficiency and visual authenticity as expected.

Measurement-based Hyper-elastic Material Identification and Real-time FEM Simulation for Haptic Rendering

  • Arsen Abdulali
  • Ibragim Atadjanov
  • Seungkyu Lee
  • Seokhee Jeon

In this paper, we propose a measurement-based modeling framework for hyper-elastic material identification and real-time haptic rendering. We build a custom data collection setup that captures shape deformation and response forces during compressive deformation of cylindrical material samples. We collected training and testing sets of data from four silicone objects having various material profiles. We design an objective function for material parameter identification by incorporating both shape deformation and reactive forces and utilize a genetic algorithm. We adopted an optimization-based Finite Element Method (FEM) for object deformation rendering. The numerical error of simulated forces was found to be perceptually negligible.

SESSION: Displays & Visual Perception

CompRate: Power Efficient Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability Monitoring on Smart Wearables

  • Vipula Dissanayake
  • Don Samitha Elvitigala
  • Haimo Zhang
  • Chamod Weerasinghe
  • Suranga Nanayakkara

Currently, smartwatches are equipped with Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors to measure Heart Rate (HR) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). However, PPG sensors consume considerably high energy, making it impractical to monitor HR & HRV continuously for an extended period. Utilising low power accelerometers to estimate HR has been broadly discussed in previous decades. Inspired by prior work, we introduce CompRate, an alternative method to measure HR continuously for an extended period in low-intensity physical activities. CompRate model calibrated for individual users only has an average performance of Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) 1.58 Beats Per Minute (BPM). Further, CompRate used 3.75 times less energy compared to the built-in PPG sensor. We also demonstrate that CompRate model can be extended to predict HRV. We will demonstrate CompRate in several application scenarios: self-awareness of fatigue and just-in-time interruption while driving; enabling teachers to be aware of students’ mental effort during a learning activity; and the broadcasting of the location of live victims in a disaster situation.

Bilateral Motion Display: Strategy to Provide Multiple Visual Perception Using Afterimage Effects for Specific Motion

  • Haruka Ikeda
  • Tomohiko Hayakawa
  • Masatoshi Ishikawa

We propose a novel displaying method that provides completely different visual perception to multiple observers simultaneously using afterimage effects for specific motion. Initially, the displayed patterns do not reveal any information; however, when seen by a user moving his or her gaze in a certain direction and speed, they are spatially integrated and appear as 2D afterimages. Our method only requires a high-speed display system to produce the user-oriented perception, which expands the range of applications in various situations such as in road signs.

SESSION: 3D Modelling and Authoring

Signifier-Based Immersive and Interactive 3D Modeling

  • Andreas Bærentzen
  • Jeppe Revall Frisvad
  • Karan Singh

Interactive 3D modeling in VR is both aided by immersive 3D input and hampered by model disjunct, tool-based or selection-action user interfaces. We propose a direct, signifier-based approach to the popular interactive technique of creating 3D models through a sequence of extrusion operations. Motivated by handles and signifiers that communicate the affordances of everyday objects, we define a set of design principles for an immersive, signifier-based modeling interface. We then present an interactive 3D modeling system where all modeling affordances are modelessly reachable and signified on the model itself.

Virtual Reality Forge: Pattern-Oriented Authoring of Virtual Reality Nuggets

  • Robin Horst
  • Ralf Dörner

A current educational trend is to divide learning content in relatively small and independent learning units, referred to as learning nuggets. These “bite-sized” nuggets often rely on patterns in order to reuse these patterns within highly diverse curricular structures like lessons, presentations or demos.

In this paper, we explore how virtual reality (VR) can be utilized as a medium for learning purposes similar to learning nuggets. We present a nugget-inspired VR system design and dovetail the pattern-oriented nugget concept in relatively small VR systems. We call this authoring approach with VR nuggets forging. Furthermore, we propose a VR authoring system for these VR nuggets – the VR forge. The system design for realizing VR nuggets and the authoring system are presented and implemented in Unity. For an example we utilize a set of basic patterns from the educational domain. In an expert user study, we use the resulting bite-sized VR applications to evaluate four critical aspects concerning VR and nugget-like usage and show that the educational experts accepted the VR nuggets. Within an additional study, we indicate that our authoring system which reflects the simplistic pattern-oriented content creation paradigm of learning nuggets has potential for general laymen authoring of VR application.

SESSION: Devices

POL360: A Universal Mobile VR Motion Controller using Polarized Light

  • Hyouk JANG
  • Juheon CHOI
  • Gunhee Kim

We introduce POL360: the first universal VR motion controller that leverages the principle of light polarization. POL360 enables a user who holds it and wears a VR headset to see their hand motion in a virtual world via its accurate 6-DOF position tracking. Compared to other techniques for VR positioning, POL360 has several advantages as follows. (1) Mobile compatibility: Neither additional computing resource like a PC/console nor any complicated pre-installation is required in the environment. Only necessary device is a VR headset with an IR LED module as a light source to which a thin-film linear polarizer is attached. (2) On-device computing: Our POL360’s computation for positioning is completed on the microprocessor in the device. Thus, it does not require additional computing resource of a VR headset. (3) Competitive accuracy and update rate: In spite of POL360’s superior mobile compatibility and affordability, POL360 attains competitive performance of accuracy and fast update rates. That is, it achieves the subcentimeter accuracy of positioning and the tracking rate higher than 60 Hz. In this paper, we derive the mathematical formulation of 6-DOF positioning using light polarization for the first time and implement a POL360 prototype that can directly operate with any commercial VR headset systems. In order to demonstrate POL360’s performance and usability, we carry out thorough quantitative evaluation and a user study and develop three game demos as use cases.

HawKEY: Efficient and Versatile Text Entry for Virtual Reality

  • Duc-Minh Pham
  • Wolfgang Stuerzlinger

Text entry is still a challenging task in modern Virtual Reality (VR) systems. The lack of efficient text entry methods limits the applications that can be used productively in VR. Previous work has addressed this issue through virtual keyboards or showing the physical keyboard in VR. While physical keyboards afford faster text entry, they usually require a seated user and an instrumented environment. We introduce a new keyboard, worn on a hawker’s tray in front of the user, which affords a compact, simple, flexible, and efficient text entry solution for VR, without restricting physical movement. In our new video condition, we also show the keyboard only when the user is looking down at it. To evaluate our novel solution and to identify good keyboard visualizations, we ran a user study where we asked participants to enter both lowercase sentences as well as complex text while standing. The results show that text entry rates are affected negatively by simplistic keyboard visualization conditions and that our solution affords desktop text entry rates, even when standing.

DexController : Designing a VR Controller with Grasp-Recognition for Enriching Natural Game Experience

  • HyeonBeom Yi
  • Jiwoo Hong
  • Hwan Kim
  • Woohun Lee

We present DexController, which is a hand-held controller leveraging grasp as an additional modality for virtual reality (VR) game. The pressure-sensitive surface of DexController was designed to recognize two different grasp-poses (i.e. precision grip and power grip) and detect grasp-force. Based on the results of two feasibility tests, a VR defense game was designed in which players could attack each enemy using the proper weapon with a proper level of force. A within-subject comparative study is conducted with a button-based controller which has the same physical form of DexController. The results indicated that DexController enhanced the perceived naturalness of the controller and game enjoyment, with having acceptable physical demand. This study clarifies the empirical effect of utilizing grasp-recognition on VR game controller to enhance interactivity. Also, we provide insight for the integration of VR game elements with the grasping modality of a controller.

SESSION: 3D Reconstruction

A Technique for Mixed Reality Remote Collaboration using 360 Panoramas in 3D Reconstructed Scenes

  • Theophilus Teo
  • Ashkan F. Hayati
  • Gun A. Lee
  • Mark Billinghurst
  • Matt Adcock

Mixed Reality (MR) remote collaboration provides an enhanced immersive experience where a remote user can provide verbal and nonverbal assistance to a local user to increase the efficiency and performance of the collaboration. This is usually achieved by sharing the local user's environment through live 360 video or a 3D scene, and using visual cues to gesture or point at real objects allowing for better understanding and collaborative task performance. While most of prior work used one of the methods to capture the surrounding environment, there may be situations where users have to choose between using 360 panoramas or 3D scene reconstruction to collaborate, as each have unique benefits and limitations. In this paper we designed a prototype system that combines 360 panoramas into a 3D scene to introduce a novel way for users to interact and collaborate with each other. We evaluated the prototype through a user study which compared the usability and performance of our proposed approach to live 360 video collaborative system, and we found that participants enjoyed using different ways to access the local user's environment although it took them longer time to learn to use our system. We also collected subjective feedback for future improvements and provide directions for future research.

Single RGB-D Fitting: Total Human Modeling with an RGB-D Shot

  • Xianyong Fang
  • Jikui Yang
  • Jie Rao
  • Linbo Wang
  • Zhigang Deng

Existing single shot based human modeling methods generally cannot model the complete pose details (e.g., head and hand positions) without non-trivial interactions. We explore the merits of both RGB and depth images and propose a new method called Single RGB-D Fitting (SRDF) to generate a realistic 3D human model with a single RGB-D shot from a consumer-grade depth camera. Specifically, the state-of-the-art deep learning techniques for RGB images are incorporated into SRDF, so that: 1) A compound skeleton detection method is introduced to obtain accurate 3D skeletons with refined hands based on the combination of depth and RGB images; and 2) an RGB image segmentation assisted point cloud pre-processing method is presented to obtain smooth foreground point clouds. In addition, several novel constraints are also introduced into the energy minimization model, including the shape continuity constraint, the keypoint-guided head pose prior constraint, and the penalty-enforced point cloud prior constraint. The energy model is optimized in a two-pass way so that a realistic shape can be estimated from coarse to fine. Through extensive experiments and comparisons with the state of the art methods, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

Floating-point Precision and Deformation Awareness for Scalable and Robust 3D Face Alignment

  • Jacob Morton
  • Seungyong Lee

This paper improves the accuracy of heatmap-based 3D face alignment neural networks. Many current approaches in face alignment are limited by two major problems, quantization and the lack of regularization of heatmaps. The first limitation is caused by the non-differentiable argmax function, which extracts landmark coordinates from heatmaps as integer indices. Heatmaps are generated at low-resolution to reduce the memory and computational costs, which results in heatmaps far lower than the input image’s resolution. We propose a heatmap generator network producing floating-point precision heatmaps that are scalable to higher-resolutions. To resolve the second limitation, we propose a novel deformation constraint on heatmaps. The constraint is based on graph-Laplacian and enables a heatmap generator to regularize overall shape of the output face landmarks using the global face structure. By eliminating quantization and including regularization, our method can vastly improve landmark localization accuracy, and achieves the state-of-the-art performance without adding complex network structures.

SESSION: Mid-Air Techniques

Depth Perception in Projective Augmented Reality: An Evaluation of Advanced Visualization Techniques

  • Florian Heinrich
  • Kai Bornemann
  • Kai Lawonn
  • Christian Hansen

Augmented reality (AR) is a promising tool to convey useful information at the place where it is needed. However, perceptual issues with augmented reality visualizations affect the estimation of distances and depth and thus can lead to critically wrong assumptions. These issues have been successfully investigated for video see-through modalities. Moreover, advanced visualization methods encoding depth information by displaying additional depth cues were developed. In this work, state-of-the-art visualization concepts were adopted for a projective AR setup. We conducted a user study to assess the concepts’ suitability to convey depth information. Participants were asked to sort virtual cubes by using the provided depth cues. The investigated visualization concepts consisted of conventional Phong shading, a virtual mirror, depth-encoding silhouettes, pseudo-chromadepth rendering and an illustrative visualization using supporting line depth cues. Besides different concepts, we altered between a monoscopic and a stereoscopic display mode to examine the effects of stereopsis. Consistent results across variables show a clear ranking of examined concepts. The supporting lines approach and the pseudo-chromadepth rendering performed best. Stereopsis was shown to provide significant advantages for depth perception, while the current visualization technique had only little effect on investigated measures in this condition. However, similar results were achieved using the supporting lines and the pseudo-chromadepth concepts in a monoscopic setup. Our study showed the suitability of advanced visualization concepts for the rendering of virtual content in projective AR. Specific depth estimation results contribute to the future design and development of applications for these systems.

Portable Mid-air Imaging Optical System on Glossy Surface

  • Ayaka Sano
  • Naoya Koizumi

We propose a portable optical system, PortOn, that displays an upright mid-air image when simply placed on a flat and glossy surface such as a desk or floor. Mid-air imaging is promising for glasses-free mixed reality because the user can see images without wearing a special device. However, there is a limitation in terms of where the conventional mid-air imaging optical systems can be installed. Therefore, we propose a mid-air optical system that solves this limitation. Our contribution is a practical optical design that enables the system to be easily installed. The advantage of our method is that it erases unnecessary light that is produced when mid-air images are displayed and shows beautiful mid-air images clearly when view-angle control and polarization are added to the system. We evaluate whether undesired light is erased by measuring luminance. As a result, the luminance of the undesired light is much lower than that of mid-air images.

SESSION: Applications

The Stroop Room: A Virtual Reality-Enhanced Stroop Test

  • Stefan Gradl
  • Markus Wirth
  • Nico M?chtlinger
  • Romina Poguntke
  • Andrea Wonner
  • Nicolas Rohleder
  • Bjoern M. Eskofier

The Stroop Test is a well known and regularly employed stressor in laboratory research. In contrast to other methods, it is not based on fear of physical harm or social shame. Consequently, it is more likely accepted by a wide population. In our always-on, technology-driven, social-media centered world, large-scale in-field stress research will need adequate experimental tools to explore the increasing prevalence of stress-related diseases without bringing subjects into laboratories. This is why we designed the Stroop Room: A virtual reality-based adaptation of the Stroop Test using elements of the virtual world to extend the demands of the original test and at the same time make it easily accessible. It is open source and can be used and improved by anyone as an in-the-wild, repeatable, laboratory-quality stressor. In this work, the method is presented and an evaluation study described, to demonstrate its effectiveness in provoking cognitive stress.

16 male and 16 female subjects were tested in the Stroop Room while recording the electrocardiogram, electrodermal activity, saliva based cortisol and alpha-amylase, performance metrics and an array of questionnaire-based assessments regarding psychological confounders, stress state and likability of the simulation.

Our results show that the Stroop Room increases heart rate on average by 19%, other heart rate variability time-domain parameters (RMSSD, pNN50) decrease by 24%-47%, and its most stress-correlated frequency-parameter (LF/HF) increases by 107%. Skin conductance (SC) level increases by 63% and non-specific SC responses by 135% on average. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase concentrations increase significantly in some specific conditions.

Compared to related work using the Stroop Test, this is an improvement for some metrics by around 30%-40%. Questionnaire evaluation show a strong engagement of users with the simulation and some aspects of a flow-induction.

These findings support the effectiveness of a Stroop Test involving 3-dimensional interactivity and thus the Stroop Room demonstrates how this can be applied in a playful interaction that could be used pervasively.

Underwater Virtual Reality System for Neutral Buoyancy Training: Development and Evaluation

  • Christian Sinnott
  • James Liu
  • Courtney Matera
  • Savannah Halow
  • Ann Jones
  • Matthew Moroz
  • Jeffrey Mulligan
  • Michael Crognale
  • Eelke Folmer
  • Paul MacNeilage

During terrestrial activities, sensation of pressure on the skin and tension in muscles and joints provides information about how the body is oriented relative to gravity and how the body is moving relative to the surrounding environment. In contrast, in aquatic environments when suspended in a state of neutral buoyancy, the weight of the body and limbs is offloaded, rendering these cues uninformative. It is not yet known how this altered sensory environment impacts virtual reality experiences. To investigate this question, we converted a full-face SCUBA mask into an underwater head-mounted display and developed software to simulate jetpack locomotion outside the International Space Station. Our goal was to emulate conditions experienced by astronauts during training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Lab. A user study was conducted to evaluate both sickness and presence when using virtual reality in this altered sensory environment. We observed an increase in nausea related symptoms underwater, but we cannot conclude that this is due to VR use. Other measures of sickness and presence underwater were comparable to measures taken above water. We conclude with suggestions for improved underwater VR systems and improved methods for evaluation of these systems based on our experience.

Hitting the Wall: Mid-Air Interaction for Eye-Hand Coordination

  • Anil Ufuk Batmaz
  • Xintian Sun
  • Dogu Taskiran
  • Wolfgang Stuerzlinger

Reaction time training systems are used to improve user performance. Until now, such setups use physical 2D flat surfaces, e.g., a 2D touch screen or buttons mounted on a wall. We designed and investigated a mid-air reaction time training system with an immersive virtual reality (VR) headset. 12 participants performed an eye-hand coordination reaction test in three conditions: both in mid-air with or without VR controller as well as with passive haptic feedback through hitting a soft-surface wall. We also altered target and cursor sizes and used a Fitts’ law task to analyze user performance. According to the results, subjects were slower and their throughput was lower when they hit a solid surface to interact with virtual targets. Our results show that Fitts’s model can be applied to these systems to measure and assess participant training.

SESSION: Monitoring

Juggling in VR: Advantages of Immersive Virtual Reality in Juggling Learning

  • Jindřich Adolf
  • Peter Kán
  • Benjamin Outram
  • Hannes Kaufmann
  • Jaromír Doležal
  • Lenka Lhotská

In this paper, we follow up on research dealing with motion learning in Virtual Reality (VR). We investigate the impact of VR motion learning on motion performance, motivation for motion learning and willingness to continue with the motion learning. In our research, we used three ball juggling as a subject of learning. We performed a user study with 30 participants. A VR application was used in our study which allows setting up lower gravity and thus slowing down the motion for learning purposes. The results were statistically evaluated and we comment on the positive influence of virtual reality on motivation and possibilities of using VR in the motion learning process.

Investigating a Physical Dial as a Measurement Tool for Cybersickness in Virtual Reality

  • Natalie McHugh
  • Sungchul Jung
  • Simon Hoermann
  • Robert W. Lindeman

This study explores ways to increase comfort in Virtual Reality by minimizing cybersickness. Cybersickness is related to classical motion sickness and causes unwanted symptoms when using immersive technologies. We developed a dial interface to accurately capture momentary user cybersickness and feed this information back to the user. Using a seated VR roller coaster environment, we found that the dial is significantly positively correlated with post-immersion questionnaires and is a valid tool compared to verbal rating approaches.

In AI We Trust: Investigating the Relationship between Biosignals, Trust and Cognitive Load in VR

  • Kunal Gupta
  • Ryo Hajika
  • Yun Suen Pai
  • Andreas Duenser
  • Martin Lochner
  • Mark Billinghurst

Human trust is a psycho-physiological state that is difficult to measure, yet is becoming increasingly important for the design of human-computer interactions. This paper explores if human trust can be measured using physiological measures when interacting with a computer interface, and how it correlates with cognitive load. In this work, we present a pilot study in Virtual Reality (VR) that uses a multi-sensory approach of Electroencephalography (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) to measure trust with a virtual agent and explore the correlation between trust and cognitive load. The goal of this study is twofold; 1) to determine the relationship between biosignals, or physiological signals with trust and cognitive load, and 2) to introduce a pilot study in VR based on cognitive load level to evaluate trust. Even though we could not report any significant main effect or interaction of cognitive load and trust from the physiological signal, we found that in low cognitive load tasks, EEG alpha band power reflects trustworthiness on the agent. Moreover, cognitive load of the user decreases when the agent is accurate regardless of task’s cognitive load. This could be possible because of small sample size, tasks not stressful enough to induce high cognitive load due to lab study and comfortable environment or timestamp synchronisation error due to fusing data from various physiological sensors with different sample rate.

SESSION: Selection

Comparing Convex Region-of-Interest Selection Techniques for Surface Geometry

  • Bret Jackson
  • Kayla Beckham
  • Anael Kuperwajs Cohen
  • Brianna C. Heggeseth

Selecting 3D regions-of-interest (ROI) in surface geometry is essential for 3D modeling, but few 3D user interfaces using fully manual input for ROI selection exist. Furthermore, their relative performance is not well studied. We present an evaluation comparing three ROI techniques: Volume Cube [Ulinski et al. 2007], Slice-n- Swipe [Bacim et al. 2014], and Yea Big Yea High Selection [Jackson et al. 2018]. Results show that Yea Big Yea High is best for tasks requiring high accuracy and speed, but modifications may be needed for use in dense geometry or with non-convex ROI.

Is the Pen Mightier than the Controller? A Comparison of Input Devices for Selection in Virtual and Augmented Reality

  • Duc-Minh Pham
  • Wolfgang Stuerzlinger

Controllers are currently the typical input device for commercial Virtual Reality (VR) systems. Yet, such controllers are not as efficient as other devices, including the mouse. This motivates us to investigate devices that substantially exceed the controller’s performance, for both VR and Augmented Reality (AR) systems. We performed a user study to compare several input devices, including a mouse, controller, and a 3D pen-like device on a VR and AR pointing task. Our results show that the 3D pen significantly outperforms modern VR controllers in all evaluated measures and that it is comparable to the mouse. Participants also liked the 3D pen more than the controller. Finally, we show how 3D pen devices could be integrated into today’s VR and AR systems.

Augmented Reality for Children in a Confirmation Task: Time, Fatigue, and Usability

  • Brita Munsinger
  • John Quarles

The objective of this paper is to explore three different interaction methods in a confirmation task on a head-mounted Augmented Reality (AR) device with a population of children aged 9-11 years. The three interaction methods we look at are voice recognition, gesture recognition, and controller. We conducted a within-subjects study using a Fitts’ Law confirmation task performed by children with a Microsoft HoloLens. We measured elapsed time during the completion of the tasks. Also, we collected usability and fatigue measures using the System Usability Scale and the OMNI RPE (Ratings of Perceived Exertion) scale. We found significant differences between voice and controller for time, fatigue and usability. We also found significant differences between gesture and controller for time, fatigue and usability. We hope to apply the results of this study to improve augmented reality educational tools for children in the future.

SESSION: Manipulation

Smart3DGuides: Making Unconstrained Immersive 3D Drawing More Accurate

  • Mayra D. Barrera Machuca
  • Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
  • Paul Asente

Most current commercial Virtual Reality (VR) drawing applications for creativity rely on freehand 3D drawing as their main interaction paradigm. However, the presence of the additional third dimension makes accurate freehand drawing challenging. Some systems address this problem by constraining or beautifying user strokes, which can be intrusive and can limit the expressivity of freehand drawing. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of relying solely on visual guidance to increase overall drawing shape-likeness. We identified a set of common mistakes that users make while creating freehand strokes in VR and then designed a set of visual guides, the Smart3DGuides, which help users avoid these mistakes. We evaluated Smart3DGuides in two user studies, and our results show that non-constraining visual guides help users draw more accurately.

Extended Sliding in Virtual Reality

  • Junwei Sun
  • Wolfgang Stuerzlinger

Although precise 3D positioning is not always necessary in virtual environments, it is still an important task for current and future applications of Virtual Reality (VR), including 3D modelling, engineering, and scientific applications. We focus on 3D positioning techniques in immersive environments that use a 6DOF controller as input device and present a new technique that improves 3D positioning performance in VR, in both speed and accuracy. Towards this goal, we adapted an extended sliding technique to VR systems with a controller as input device and compared it with previously presented 3DOF positioning techniques. The results showed that our new Extended VR Sliding technique significantly improved the accuracy for 3D positioning tasks, especially for targets in contact with the scene.

SlingDrone: Mixed Reality System for Pointing and Interaction Using a Single Drone

  • Evgeny Tsykunov
  • Roman Ibrahimov
  • Derek Vasquez
  • Dzmitry Tsetserukou

We propose SlingDrone, a novel Mixed Reality interaction paradigm that utilizes a micro-quadrotor as both pointing controller and interactive robot with a slingshot motion type. The drone attempts to hover at a given position while the human pulls it in desired direction using a hand grip and a leash. Based on the displacement, a virtual trajectory is defined. To allow for intuitive and simple control, we use virtual reality (VR) technology to trace the path of the drone based on the displacement input. The user receives force feedback propagated through the leash. Force feedback from SlingDrone coupled with visualized trajectory in VR creates an intuitive and user friendly pointing device. When the drone is released, it follows the trajectory that was shown in VR. Onboard payload (e.g. magnetic gripper) can perform various scenarios for real interaction with the surroundings, e.g. manipulation or sensing. Unlike HTC Vive controller, SlingDrone does not require handheld devices, thus it can be used as a standalone pointing technology in VR.

SESSION: Poster Abstracts

2D/3D Mixed Interface for Furniture Placement in Smartphone-based Mobile Augmented Reality

  • Bin Han
  • Gerard J. Kim

In this work, we propose to use an approximate 2D map of the environment generated from the latest environment modeling technology and enhance the object manipulation performance for the touch based mobile augmented reality. We validated the advantage of the proposed interface through a pilot experiment and confirmed that the use of the 2D map helps reduce the task completion time almost 2 times and improve the usability as well.

A Comparison of Human and Machine-Generated Voice

  • Amal Abdulrahman
  • Deborah Richards
  • Ayse Aysin Bilgin

This study investigates the influence of a virtual human (VH) with recorded human voice vs VH with a machine-generated voice (text-to-speech) on building trust and working alliance. We measured the co-presence perception to understand the impact of VH's perception on building the human-VH relationship. The results revealed no differences between the two types of voices on co-presence perception, trust or working alliance.

A Comparative Study of Planar Surface and Spherical Surface for 3D Pointing Using Direct Touch

  • Naoki Yanagihara
  • Buntarou Shizuki
  • Shin Takahashi

We investigated the performance of 3D pointing using direct touch in a planar surface condition (PC) and a spherical surface condition (SC). In addition, we examined the performance in terms of Fitts’ law. Although the results showed that the performance in SC was slightly worse than PC, SC was higher conformed to Fitts’ law than PC without the conditions involving head rotation (PC’s and SC’s R2 is 0.945 and 0.971, respectively).

A Content-Aware Approach for Analysing Eye Movement Patterns in Virtual Reality

  • Xi Cao
  • Richard Skarbez
  • Zhen He
  • Henry Been-Lirn Duh

Observing eye movement is a direct way to analyse human’s attention. Eye movement patterns in normal environment have been widely investigated. In virtual reality (VR) environment, previous studies of eye movement patterns are mainly based on content-unrelated influential factors. Considering this issue, in this paper, a novel content-related factor is studied. One crucial kind of region of interest (ROI), namely vision-penetrable entrance, is chosen to analyse eye movement pattern differences. The results suggest that users show more interest in vision-penetrable entrances than in other regions. Furthermore, this kind of difference is identified as higher average density of fixation. As far as we know, this paper is the first attempt to study specific types of ROI in virtual reality environments. The method utilised in this paper can be applied in other ROI analysis.

A Framework for Virtual Reality Training to Improve Public Speaking

  • Kerry Pellet
  • Syed Fawad Mustafa Zaidi

This paper presents the logic and construction of a prototype virtual reality (VR) tool for public speech training. It reflects upon previous endeavours in this area, using them to make informed design decisions. A dictation recognizer is implemented to perform speech to text conversions. With this training simulator, users are be able to step into a virtual environment resembling a podium in an auditorium, with their speech appearing on a virtual cue card. Also, users are presented with a performance metric at the end of their speech to grade their overall performance. We suggest that the VR immersive prototype using speech-to-text recognition has a potential to be engaging and to serve as a tool for public speaking training.

A Glyph-based Multimodal Presentation of Multivariate Data

  • Shamima Yasmin

This paper describes the feasibility of glyph-based presentations of multivariate data in a multimodal virtual environment (VE). In a multimodal VE, variables are represented as haptic glyphs of different shapes and sizes; data becomes tangible along with its visual representation. Audio feedback helps further exploration of the data. This glyph-based multimodal presentation makes information available to the blind and visually impaired (VI) in a semantic-aware environment. A multimodal VE also enriches the experience of the sighted users.

A Haptic-enhanced New Approach to Laryngoscopy

  • Shamima Yasmin

Laryngoscopy or endotracheal intubation is a common medical procedure where a tube is passed into the lungs of patients for providing oxygen or other anesthetic gas. Improper intubation can be life threatening; hence, emphasis is laid on proper hand-eye coordination and an understanding of proper exertion of pressure on the patient’s body. This paper proposes a haptic-based implementation of endotracheal intubation to address shortcomings in existing approaches.

A Mobile Augmented Reality Interface for Teaching Folk Dances

  • Iris Kico
  • Fotis Liarokapis

This paper presents a prototype mobile augmented reality interface for assisting the process of learning folk dances. As a case study, a folk dance was digitized based on recordings from professional dancers. To assess the effectiveness of the technology, it was comparatively evaluated with a large back-projection system in laboratory conditions. Sixteen participants took part in the study, and their movements were captured using motion capture system and then compared with the recordings from the professional dancers. Experimental results indicate that augmented reality has the potential to be used for learning folk dances.

A Scalability Benchmark for a Virtual Audience Perception Model in Virtual Reality

  • Yann Glemarec
  • Anne-Gwenn Bosser
  • Cedric Buche
  • Jean-Luc Lugrin
  • Maximilian Landeck
  • Marc Erich Latoschik
  • Mathieu Chollet

In this paper, we describe the implementation and performance of a Virtual Audience perception model for Virtual Reality (VR). The model is a VR adaptation of an existing desktop model. The system allows a user in VR to easily build and experience a wide variety of atmospheres with small or large groups of virtual agents.The paper describes results of early evaluations for this model in VR. Our first scalability benchmark results demonstrated the ability to simultaneously handle one hundred virtual agents without significantly affecting there commended frame rate for VR applications.This research is conducted in the context of a classroom simulation software for teachers’ training.

A Virtual Reality Simulator for Training Gaze Control of Wheeled Tele-Robots

  • Guangtao Zhang
  • John Paulin Hansen

People who cannot use their hands may use eye-gaze to interact with robots. Emerging virtual reality head-mounted displays (HMD) have built-in eye-tracking sensors. Previous studies suggest that users need substantial practice for gaze steering of wheeled robots with an HMD. In this paper, we propose to apply a VR-based simulator for training of gaze-controlled robot steering. The simulator and preliminary test results are presented.

A Web-based Augmented Reality Plat-form using Pictorial QR Code for Educational Purposes and Beyond

  • Minh Nguyen
  • Minh Phu Lai
  • Huy Le
  • Wei Qi Yan

Augmented Reality (AR) provides the capability to overlay virtual 3D information onto a 2D printed flat surface; for example, displaying a 3D model on a single flat card that accompanies with the diagram shown in a learning text-book. The student can zoom in and out, rotate, and perceive the animation of the figure in real-time. This will make the educational theory more attractive; hence, motivates students to learn. AR is a great tool; however, the setup and display are not straight-forward (there are many different AR markers with different encryption, decryption methods, and displaying flat-forms). In this paper, we proposed a portable browser-based platform which uses the advantages of AR along with scan-able QR Code on mobile phones to enhance instant 3D visualisation. The user only needs a smart-phone (Apple iPhone or Android) with Internet-enabled; no specific Apps are needed to install. The user scans the QR Code embedded in a colour image, the code will link to a public website, and the website will produce AR Experience right on top of the browser. As a result, it provides a stress-free, low-cost, portable, and promising solution for not only educational purposes but also many other fields such as gaming, property selling, e-commerce, reporting. The set up is convenient: the user uploads a picture (e.g. a racing car), and what actions to be related to it (a 3D model to display, or a movie to play). The system will add on the picture one small colour QR code (to redirect to an online URL) and a thin black border. The user also uploads the 3D model (GLTF files) that he wants to display on top of the card to finish the set-up. At the display, the user can print the AR card, point their smart-phone towards the card, and pre-setup AR models or actions will appear on it. To students, these 3D graphics or animations will allow them to learn and understand the lessons in a much more intuitive way.

An Evaluation of Head-Mounted Virtual Reality for Special Education from the Teachers’ Perspective

  • Sirisilp Kongsilp
  • Takashi Komuro

In this research, we explore the use of head-mounted virtual reality for special education from the teachers’ perspective. We asked a group of special educators to assess the use of VR headset while students with mental disabilities played a VR game. The teachers concluded that head-mounted VR can be used for teaching students to follow instruction and training for work.

Action Units: Directing User Attention in 360-degree Video based VR

  • Lingwei Tong
  • Sungchul Jung
  • Robert W. Lindeman

A key challenge to effective storytelling using Virtual Reality (VR), such as with 360-degree videos, is how to direct user attention to important content without taking away user agency for free exploration. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an Action Unit system, composed of social cues such as head and arm movements, as a way of directing users to focus on content important for the given narrative. We applied this idea to a 360-degree VR tour, and evaluated its effects on memory, engagement, enjoyment, and cyber-sickness. The results indicate that the levels of engagement and enjoyment increased when these Action Units were applied. Users also preferred the Action Units for their diegetic aspects.

AHMED: Toolset for Ad-Hoc Mixed-reality Exhibition Design

  • Krzysztof Pietroszek
  • Carl Moore

We present “AHMED”, a mixed-reality toolset that allows visitors to experience mixed-reality museum or art exhibitions created ad-hoc at locations such as event venues, private parties,or a living room. The system democratizes access to exhibitions for populations that cannot visit these exhibitions in person for reasons of disability, time-constraints, travel restrictions, or socio-economic status.

Analysis of VR Sickness and Gait Parameters During Non-Isometric Virtual Walking with Large Translational Gain

  • Carlos Alfredo Tirado Cortes
  • Hsiang-Ting Chen
  • Chin-Teng Lin

Augmented Reality Approach For Position-based Service using Handheld Smartphone

  • Jihoon Park
  • Sangmin Park
  • Kwanghee Ko

In this work, we present an augmented reality (AR) approach for position based service using a smartphone in an indoor environment. The AR method, combined with position estimation, provides a user with a smartphone with a service that is specific to a particular position without using a marker or any other hardware device. The position in an indoor environment is estimated using an IMU sensor only in the smartphone. The accuracy of the position and heading direction of the user is improved by integrating the values from the accelerometer and the gyro using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) and Extended Kalman Filter(EKF). Then, a drift noise of the estimated position is reduced by a registration step performed at a specific position. The estimated position is given to the position based service, which is provided to the user on the smartphone screen through AR. The concept of the proposed method is demonstrated with some examples.

Augmented Reality Visualisation Concepts to Support Intraoperative Distance Estimation

  • Florian Heinrich
  • Gerd Schmidt
  • Florian Jungmann
  • Christian Hansen

The estimation of distances and spatial relations between surgical instruments and surrounding anatomical structures is a challenging task for clinicians in image-guided surgery. Using augmented reality (AR), navigation aids can be displayed directly at the intervention site to support the assessment of distances and reduce the risk of damage to healthy tissue. To this end, four distance-encoding visualisation concepts were developed using a head-mounted optical see-through AR setup and evaluated by conducting a comparison study. Results suggest the general advantage of the proposed methods compared to a blank visualisation providing no additional information. Using a Distance Sensor concept signalising the proximity of nearby structures resulted in the least time the instrument was located below 5mm to surrounding risk structures and yielded the least amount of collisions with them.

Blind Navigation of Web Pages through Vibro-tactile Feedbacks

  • Waseem Safi
  • Fabrice Maurel
  • Jean-Marc Routoure
  • Pierre Beust
  • Michèle Molina
  • Coralie Sann
  • Jessica Guilbert

We present results of an empirical study for examining the performance of sighted and blind individuals in discriminating structures of web pages through vibro-tactile feedbacks.

Can We Predict Susceptibility to Cybersickness?

  • Dante Risi
  • Stephen Palmisano

This study investigated whether individual differences in postural stability/activity can be used to predict who will become sick when exposed to head-mounted display (HMD) based virtual reality (VR). We found that participants who reported feeling sick after at least one exposure to VR displayed different postural activity than those who remained well. Importantly these differences were present in their sway data before they even donned the HMD. These results are inline with the postural instability theory of motion sickness and suggest that we can identify individuals who are more susceptible HMD-based cybersickness based on their spontaneous postural sway.

Cinévoqué: Development of a Passively Responsive Framework for Seamless Evolution of Experiences in Immersive Live-Action Movies

  • Amarnath Murugan
  • Jayesh S. Pillai
  • Amal Dev

Cinematic Virtual Reality’s (CVR) inherent feature of allowing the user to choose their Point of View (POV) within a 360° space brings forth new challenges to storytelling. The approaches used in traditional films do not translate directly to this medium, as it is uncertain if the user would follow all the Points of Interest (POIs) consistently. Our framework, Cinévoqué, aims to address this issue by using the real-time data generated during a VR film to passively alter the narrative and parts of the experience to suit the user’s viewing behavior. In this poster, we discuss the technical approaches used to implement this framework and create responsive live-action CVR.

Comfortable Locomotion in VR: Teleportation is Not a Complete Solution

  • Jeremy Clifton
  • Stephen Palmisano

We compared two common techniques of controller-based locomotion (teleportation and steering locomotion) in virtual reality (VR) in terms of the cybersickness they produce. Participants had to continuously navigate a commercial VR application for 16 minutes using each technique, while standing and seated. While teleportation produced less cybersickness than steering locomotion on average, a number of participants reported teleportation to be more sickening. These ‘telesick’ participants were found to have greater medio/lateral positional variability in their spontaneous postural sway than ‘steersick’ participants prior to VR exposure. We conclude that different individuals may require unique techniques to comfortably locomote in VR.

Design and Realization of Sustainable Rural Housing Using Immersive Virtual Reality Platform

  • Vishwas G. Kini
  • Shilpa Sunil

Rapid urbanization in developing countries has paved way to spontaneous settlements, which are overcrowded. The aim of this work is to assess the impact of Virtual Reality (VR) on different types of sustainable construction techniques that are proposed for rural slum communities. The work mainly focuses on a walkthrough and interactions on a prototype of a sustainable housing unit in a rural slum community built with eco-friendly building materials, natural light source and ventilation.

Design of Portable Thermal Sensor Device for VR

  • Dongmin Moon
  • Seongah Chin

This study proposes a thermal sensibility haptic system that can be used in the VR environment to stimulate multiple sensory receptors. In addition, the object can be distinguished through the touch if it is reproduced by adjusting the intensity of the stimulus based on the intrinsic thermal energy and surface curvature of the object.

Drone-Steering: A Novel VR Traveling Technique

  • Jean-Luc Lugrin
  • Andreas Juchno
  • Philipp Schaper
  • Maximilian Landeck
  • Marc Erich Latoschik

This paper presents a novel technique of navigation in Virtual Reality (VR) called Drone-Steering. This technique has been designed to facilitate path learning and traveling in VR by reducing both cybersickness and disorientation. We compared this technique to traditional Hand-Steering in a landmark-free environment. Our first experiment confirmed a significantly lower level of cybersickness during traveling and significantly better path learning. We believe that our technique constitutes a promising alternative to current VR navigation techniques, and will especially interest researchers and developers targeting large VR environments.

Effects of Age and Motivation for Visiting on AR Museum Experiences

  • Narae Park
  • Yohan HONG
  • Hyunjeong Pak
  • Jung Who Nam
  • Kyoungsu Kim
  • Junbom Pyo
  • Kyungwon Gil
  • Kyoobin Lee

Augmented reality(AR) provides a unique viewing experience at museums where people understand abstract history through physical artifacts. Although AR usage in museum settings has been increasing, it is not well understood how AR viewing experience differs in different groups of visitors, which can be problematic considering that museums are places visited by diverse groups of people. In this study, we evaluate the differences in AR experiences according to the characteristics of the visitors. The results show the effect of AR usage in museum settings with visitors’ different age groups and motivations for visiting.

Effects of Latency in Visual Feedback on Human Performance of Path-Steering Tasks

  • Himari Tochioka
  • Haruka Ikeda
  • Tomohiko Hayakawa
  • Masatoshi Ishikawa

Effects of latency in a visual feedback system during path-steering tasks were examined. Input movements were recorded in high speed and projected with controlled latency, while a user was required to drag an object through a tunnel path. We tested the system with 10 people and analyzed the duration based on the steering law and revealed that the latency of visual feedback beyond 64.3 ms was associated with reductions in user performance, which provides suggestions in developing user-oriented interface designs.

Effects of Tactile Perception on Emotion and Immersion to Film Viewing in a Virtual Environment

  • Aelee Kim
  • Hayoung Bae
  • Kyoungmin Lee

In this research, we compared three tactile conditions (No vs. Soft vs. Spiky) in both positive and negative scenes to explore whether tactile perception could influence emotional responses and immersive experience in a virtual environment (VE). The results showed that, when viewing positive scenes with soft stimuli, participants experienced an increase in both positive emotions and their level of immersion compared to those in the No and Spiky tactile conditions. We also found that participants in the No and Spiky tactile conditions reported no significant differences in either emotion or immersion when viewing positive scenes. During the viewing of negative scenes, spiky stimuli did not intensify negative feelings, while soft stimuli decreased negative emotions. In terms of immersion, there was no meaningful difference between the three tactile conditions for negative scenes. Overall, this study has demonstrated the important association between tactile perception, emotion, and immersion in a VE.

Enhancement of Pointing Towards Non-Haptic Augmented Reality Interfaces by Increasing the Arm Position Sense

  • Daniela Markov-Vetter
  • Oliver Staadt

Interactive user interfaces in head-mounted Augmented Reality environments are not always projected onto a physical surface. However, operating such free-floating interfaces by touch gestures is challenging because they do not provide haptic feedback. Considering a pointing gesture, in this work we present a user study evaluating the benefits of increasing the arm position sense for operating non-haptic interface. Our findings confirm that haptic feedback is required and show that an increased arm sense compensates for the lack of haptic feedback. The results suggest that applying 0.3 times of the pointing arm’s weight significantly speeds up direct object selection for free-floating interfaces. We also show that the correction phase of the underlying pointing movement is affected by boosting the arm sense.

Evaluation of Navigation Operations in Immersive Microscopic Visualization

  • Tomomi Takashina
  • Mitsuru Ito
  • Yuji Kokumai

In this study, we evaluated the quantitative effectiveness of navigation operation in a virtual reality (VR) volumetric viewer, in order to confirm the effectiveness of VR in life sciences. The analytical work for biological data is a promising application of VR because users can manipulate 3D data intuitively in VR. However, few studies have focused on the quantitative evaluations of such applications. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the speedup of navigation operation (sequences of translation, rotation, and scaling) in VR applications for 3D microscopy. We compared the task completion time between a non-VR visualization tool and a VR visualization tool. The speedup by the VR immersive visualizer was found to be 203% in the most effective case. The result showed that the VR immersive visualizer enables more efficient navigation than the conventional volumetric viewer.

Experiencing Waiting Time in Virtual Reality

  • Jean-Luc Lugrin
  • Fabian Unruh
  • Maximilian Landeck
  • yoan Lamour
  • Marc Erich Latoschik
  • Kai Vogeley
  • Marc Wittmann

This article investigates the impact of waiting in Virtual Reality (VR) on the perception of time. We manipulated the visual quality of a virtual room replicating a real one (360-picture vs. 3D-model) with and without avatar embodiment (no-avatar vs. avatar). We only observed a significant difference in the estimated time duration between the real and the virtual worlds when using no avatar within a 3D model of the room. Our early results suggest that a VR environment with an avatar and a simple 3D model or 360 picture room is not significantly perturbing time perception and thus could be used for diagnosis and therapy of psychiatric conditions related to altered time perception.

Exploring Experiences of Virtual Reality among Young and Older Adults in a Subway Fire Scenario: a Pilot Study

  • Minyeong Seo
  • Hansu Lee
  • Seungmi Choi
  • Suhyun Jo
  • Heejae Jung
  • Subin Park
  • Hyunggu Jung

We report a pilot study investigating experiences of virtual reality (VR) among young and older adults in a subway fire scenario. We created VR environments in subway fire scenarios and ran an experiment by asking 5 young and 5 older adults to explore VR environments. After the experiment, participants were asked to fill out a survey questionnaire to report their feelings. Additionally, we conducted semi-structured interviews with participants to understand challenges they faced while exploring VR environments. We found that compared with young adults, older adults tended to be different during the process of evacuating a subway station in virtual reality. We suggest design opportunities for creating VR environments for more effective training of older adults.

Exploring Immersive Technologies to Simulate Fear of Crime

  • Francisco J. Castro-Toledo
  • Konstantinos Koumaditis
  • Panagiotis Mitkidis
  • Juan O. Perea-Garcia

The implementation of Virtual Reality (VR) tools in criminological research is very scarce, and almost non-existent in the fear of crime (FoC) field. Our objective is to assess the feasibility of Immersive Technologies for research on FoC. To do so, a simulation (360° video) grounded on the manipulation of environmental variables (street lighting) was conducted. Our preliminary results suggest that: (a) virtual simulation of absence of urban lighting elicits experiences of FoC, and (b) that simulation of experiences of FoC in virtual reality is an adequate strategy for analysis of this phenomenon.

Impact of Gamified Interaction with Virtual Nature on Sustained Attention and Self-Reported Restoration  —  A Pilot Study

  • Oankar Patil
  • Heng Yao
  • Benjamin Lok

Interaction with nature in virtual reality has been shown to induce similar restorative benefits as interaction with real-life nature. Drawing from Attention restoration theory, restorative benefits from being in virtual nature are likely to be improved through greater active engagement techniques with specific virtual natural features. Gamification is the process of adding game design elements in non-game scenarios in order to improve engagement and motivation. In the present pilot study, six participants completed either a gamified interaction with virtual nature, one where game design elements had been added in order to improve engagement with specific virtual nature features and thus possibly further facilitating sustained attention and self-reported restoration, having them pick plants and gain rewards such as a higher level in return, or a non-gamified task, one where they explored the virtual nature environment and looked at plants at their own pace without any game design elements. Gamified interaction improved sustained attention restoration more than non-gamified interaction. Additionally, gamified interaction was also shown to have reduced negative effect in self-reported restoration more than non-gamified interaction. While there are still several limitations, gamified interaction with virtual nature seems to offer vast potential as an engagement technique in improving sustained attention and self-reported restoration.

Indian Virtual reality affective database with self-report measures and EDA

  • Surya Soujanya Kodavalla
  • Minaxi Jai Bhagwan Goel
  • Priyanka Srivastava

The current work assesses the physiological and psychological responses to the 360° emotional videos selected from Stanford virtual reality (VR) affective database [Li et al., 2017], presented using VR head-mounted display (HMD). Participants were asked to report valence and arousal level after watching each video. The electro-dermal activity (EDA) was recorded while watching the videos. The current pilot study shows no significant difference in skin-conductance response (SCR) between the high and low arousal experience. Similar trends were observed during high and low valence. The self-report pilot data on valence and arousal shows no statistically significant difference between Stanford VR affective responses and the corresponding Indian population psychological responses. Despite positive result of no-significant difference in self-report across cultures, we are limited to generalize the result because of small sample size.

Interactive Indirect Illumination Using Mipmap-based Ray Marching and Local Means Replaced Denoising

  • Bo Zhang
  • Kyoungsu Oh

An interactive, one-bounce, and indirect illumination algorithm, which considers indirect visibility, is introduced. First, a ray marching algorithm (MRM), which is based on a 3D mipmap hierarchy structure generated by voxelizing the scene to accelerate the ray-voxel intersection, is used. Second, the indirect images are denoised by iterating an improved, edge-avoiding filtering with a local means replacement (LMR) method. The implementation demonstrates that our solutions can efficiently generate high-quality global illumination images even in a fully dynamic scene.

Interactive Virtual-Reality Fire Extinguisher with Haptic Feedback

  • Sang-Woo Seo
  • SeungJoon Kwon
  • Waseem Hassan
  • Aishwari Talhan
  • Seokhee Jeon

We present an interactive virtual-reality (VR) fire extinguisher that provides both realistic viewing using a head-mounted display (HMD) and kinesthetic experiences using a pneumatic muscle and vibrotactile transducer. The VR fire extinguisher is designed to train people to use a fire extinguisher skillfully in real fire situations. We seamlessly integrate three technologies: VR, object motion tracking, and haptic feedback. A fire scene is immersed in the HMD, and a motion tracker is used to replicate a real designed object into the virtual environment to realize augmented reality. In addition, when the handle of the fire extinguisher is squeezed to release the extinguishing agent, the haptic device generates both vibrotactile and air flow tactile feedback signals, providing the same experience as that obtained while using a real fire extinguisher.

Interactive Visualization of Painting Data with Augmented Reality

  • Kyungjin Yoo
  • Dean Foster

Exploration of Augmented Reality technologies has increased substantially and the increase in both popularity and technological maturity has also led to several applications being developed for educational and museum environments. Specifically, a greater focus has been placed upon creating memorable experiences that both attract and educate museum patrons. Attempts to do this involve creating both Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality experiences, such as having users enter into immersive worlds that demonstrate the history of a certain time period, or applications that overlay life-like models of those animals in the very room the user is standing in. Many of these experiences are quite exceptional but begin to lack in variety when moving towards the art gallery, and mainly focus on making painting information more accessible. In an attempt to address this, this project outlines the design and evaluation of a proof-of-concept meant to study if adding interaction through Augmented Reality to paintings themselves would be both technologically feasible and desirable.

IRIS: Inter-Reality Interactive Surface

  • Krzysztof Pietroszek

While many metaphors were developed for interactions from a specific point at the reality-virtuality continuum, much less attention has been paid to designing metaphors that allow the users to cross the boundaries between the virtual, the augmented, and the real. We propose a use of an Inter-Reality Interactive Surface (IRIS) that enables users to collaborate across the reality-virtuality continuum within the same application. While we examine IRIS in the context of an immersive educational platform, UniVResity, the metaphor can be generalized to many other application domains.

Learning-based Estimation of 6-DoF Camera Poses from Partial Observation of Large Objects for Mobile AR*

  • Jean-Pierre Lomaliza
  • Hanhoon Park

We propose a method that estimates 6-DoF camera pose from a partially visible large object, by exploiting information of its subparts that are detected using a state-of-the-art convolutional neural network (CNN). The trained CNN outputs two-dimensional bounding boxes around subparts and associated classes. Information from detection is then fed to a deep neural network that regresses to camera's 6-DoF poses. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more robust to occlusions than conventional learning-based methods.

LINACVR: VR Simulation for Radiation Therapy Education

  • Haydn Bannister
  • Ben Selwyn-Smith
  • Craig Anslow
  • Brian Robinson
  • Rafael K dos Anjos PhD
  • Daniel Pires
  • Paul Kane
  • Aidan Leong

A clear and well-documented LaTeX document is presented as an article formatted for publication by ACM in a conference proceedings or journal publication. Based on the “acmart” document class, this article presents and explains many of the common variations, as well as many of the formatting elements an author may use in the preparation of the documentation of their work.

Mixed Reality Speaker Identification as an Accessibility Tool for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Users

  • Abraham Glasser
  • Edward Mason Riley
  • Kaitlyn Weeks
  • Raja Kushalnagar

People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH) benefit from text captioning to understand audio, yet captions alone are often insufficient for the complex environment of a panel presentation, with rapid and unpredictable turn-taking among multiple speakers. It is challenging and tiring for DHH individuals to view captioned panel presentations, leading to feelings of misunderstanding and exclusion. In this work, we investigate the potential of Mixed Reality (MR) head-mounted displays for providing captioning with visual cues to indicate which person on the panel is speaking. For consistency in our experimental study, we simulate a panel presentation in virtual reality (VR) with various types of MR visual cues; in a study with 18 DHH participants, visual cues made it easier to identify speakers.

Monocular Viewing Protects Against Cybersickness Produced by Head Movements in the Oculus Rift

  • Stephen Palmisano
  • Luke Szalla
  • Juno Kim

We compared the cybersickness produced when a virtual environment (VE) was viewed binocularly and monocularly through an Oculus Rift CV1 head-mounted display (HMD). During each exposure to the VE participants made continuous yaw head movements in time with a computer-generated metronome. Across trials we also varied their head movement frequency (0.5 or 1.0 Hz) and motion-to-photon delays (from ∼5 - ∼212 ms). We found that: 1) cybersickness severity increased with added display lag; and 2) monocular viewing appeared to protect against these increases in cybersickness. We conclude that active binocular viewing with this HMD introduced artifacts that increased the likelihood of more severe sickness.

Optical-Reflection Type 3D Augmented Reality Mirrors

  • Gun A. Lee
  • Hye Sun Park
  • Mark Billinghurst

Augmented Reality (AR) mirrors can show virtual objects overlaid onto the physical world reflected in the mirror. Optical-reflection type AR mirror displays use half-silvered mirrors attached in front of a digital display. However, prior work suffered from visual depth mismatch between the optical reflection of the 3D physical space and 2D images displayed on the surface of the mirror. In this research, we use 3D visualisation to overcome this problem and improve the user experience by providing better depth perception for watching and interacting with the content displayed on an AR mirror. As a proof of concept, we developed two prototype optical-reflection type 3D AR mirror displays, one using glasses-free multi-view 3D display and another using a head tracked 3D stereoscopic display that supports hand gesture interaction.

PanoFlex: Adaptive Panoramic Vision to Accommodate 360° Field-of-View for Humans

  • Feng Liang
  • Stevanus Kevin
  • Kai Kunze
  • Yun Suen Pai

We propose PanoFlex, an adaptive method for projecting panoramic vision using a dynamic distortion method based on eye gaze. We stream real-time video from a 360° camera and project the view on a plane to the user. The user controls the distortion of this equirectangular projection using eye gaze. For our first user study, we compare our method with conventional equirectangular projection considering the impact on spatial perception. For our second study, we perform a simulator sickness evaluation when the user performs regular daily activities. We found that PanoFlex did not carry any significant negative impact towards the user’s spatial perception, perceived task load, and simulator sickness compared to the more conventional equirectangular view.

Predicting the Torso Direction from HMD Movements for Walk-in-Place Navigation through Deep Learning

  • Juyoung Lee
  • Andreas Pastor
  • Jae-In Hwang
  • Gerard Jounghyun Kim

In this paper, we propose to use the deep learning technique to estimate and predict the torso direction from the head movements alone. The prediction allows to implement the walk-in-place navigation interface without additional sensing of the torso direction, and thereby improves the convenience and usability. We created a small dataset and tested our idea by training an LSTM model and obtained a 3-class prediction rate of about 90%, a figure higher than using other conventional machine learning techniques. While preliminary, the results show the possible inter-dependence between the viewing and torso directions, and with richer dataset and more parameters, a more accurate level of prediction seems possible.

Preliminary Evaluation of the Usability of a Virtual Reality Game for Mudslide Education for Children

  • Mengping Tsuei
  • Jen-I Chiu
  • Tsu-Wei Peng
  • Yuan-Chen Chang

Mudslide education is important for children. In this study, a design-based research approach was used to develop an educational VR mudslide game for children. Eleven children participated in the usability evaluations. The results indicated the importance of intuitive, easy-to-learn controls. Six major refinements of the VR mudslide game were made to increase usabilities. Feedback from the participants will guide future game refinements to increase users’ engagement and interaction.

Proposing a Hand-Tracking Device using a Tangential Force Mechanical Sensor

  • Yuto Kurashige
  • Michael Vallance

Conventional hand-tracking devices are constructed with inertial measurement units, bending sensors, and optical technologies. However, these are limited by their high-cost and environmental factors. In this research, a hand-tracking device using a tangential force mechanical sensor for use in Immersive Virtual Environments is proposed.

Real-time Monitoring Method for Cybersickness using Physiological Signals

  • Takurou Magaki
  • Michael Vallance

The potential for cybersickness remains a critical problem when engaged in Virtual Reality experiences. Cybersickness is difficult to resolve because, although there are commonly accepted symptoms and theories, there is still no consensus on how to overcome the problem. In this study, a method of real-time monitoring of physiological signals is proposed as an approach to measure the potential onset of cybersickness. An application called Cybatica which displays physiological data and a unique metric termed Onset of Cybersickness (OCS) has been developed.

RecyGlide : A Forearm-worn Multi-modal Haptic Display aimed to Improve User VR Immersion Submission

  • Juan Heredia
  • Jonathan Tirado
  • Vladislav Panov
  • Miguel Altamirano Cabrera
  • Kamal Youcef-Toumi
  • Dzmitry Tsetserukou

Haptic devices have been employed to immerse users in VR environments. In particular, hand and finger haptic devices have been deeply developed. However, this type of devices occludes hand detection for some tracking systems, or, for some other tracking systems, it is uncomfortable for the users to wear two different devices (haptic and tracking device) on both hands. We introduce RecyGlide, a novel wearable multimodal display located at the forearm. The RecyGlide is composed of inverted five-bar linkages with 2 degrees of freedom (DoF) and vibration motors (see Fig. 1.(a). The device provides multimodal tactile feedback such as slippage, force vector, pressure, and vibration. We tested the discrimination ability of monomodal and multimodal stimuli patterns on the forearm and confirmed that the multimodal patterns have higher recognition rate. This haptic device was used in VR applications, and we proved that it enhances VR experience and makes it more interactive.

Scalebridge VR: Immersive Proportional Reasoning Game for Children with Brain-Computer Interface for Difficulty Scaling

  • Krzysztof Pietroszek
  • Liudmila Tahai

We present the design and evaluation of Scalebridge VR, an immersive educational game that teaches children the mathematical skill of proportional reasoning. The game uses brain-computer-interface-based adaptive level difficulty to modulate difficulty of the game based on the player’s attention and meditation state. The game is an adaptation of previously introduced Scalebridge game that did not use virtual reality, but was shown to be an effective tool for learning proportional reasoning.

Soap film flow and thickness for soap bubble rendering

  • Sanghyeon Gil
  • Yunji Seok
  • Kiyeol Park
  • Jaeseok Yoo
  • Seongah Chin

In practice, it is not easy to find a study of soap bubbles rendering by measuring the speed and thickness of soap bubbles flow. In this study, we have carried out to measure the change in the flow and thickness of a soap film to realistically render soap bubbles.

SolarVR for inter-cognitive and intra-cognitive communication

  • Michael Vallance
  • Takurou Magaki
  • Yuto Kurashige
  • Luke Johnson

The aim of this research is to design and implement a Solar Virtual Reality environment (SolarVR) for inter-cognitive and intra-cognitive communication by connecting users and sensors to a real-world solar panel plant for remote monitoring, maintenance and collaboration. The paper outlines the development of a VR solution which can be utilized for remote monitoring and communication, skills training and science education.

The Impact of Stereo Rendering on the Perception of Normal Mapped Geometry in Virtual Reality

  • Martin Misiak
  • Niko Wissmann
  • Arnulph Fuhrmann
  • Marc Erich Latoschik

This paper investigates the effects of normal mapping on the perception of geometric depth between stereoscopic and non-stereoscopic views. Results show, that in a head-tracked environment, the addition of binocular disparity has no impact on the error rate in the detection of normal-mapped geometry. It does however significantly shorten the detection time.

Toward Effective Virtual Reality Intervention Development Planning for People with Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness

  • Syed Fawad M. Zaidi
  • Prof. Justin Beilby
  • Prof. Mick Grimley

Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness (PPPD) is defined by World Health organization as ”Persistent non-vertiginous dizziness, unsteadiness, or both lasting three months or more”. With the most common provocations are situations like up-right position, self-motions, looking at fast moving objects or disruptions in a crowded environment. Besides conventional treatments, scientists are looking at the possibility of using creative technology including virtual reality (VR) to assist improving symptoms. Here, we have proposed a strategy that would strengthen the initial phase of discussion between VR technologists and PPPD experts on developing an effective VR based intervention tool.

Towards Dynamic Positioning of Text Content on a Windshield Display for Automated Driving

  • Andreas Riegler
  • Andreas Riener
  • Clemens Holzmann

Windshield displays (WSDs) are a promising new technology to augment the entire windscreen with additional information about vehicle state, highlight critical objects in the surrounding, or serve as replacement for conventional displays. Typically, augmentation is provided in a screen-fixed manner as overlay on the windscreen. However, it is unclear to date if this is optimal in terms of usability/UX. In this work, we propose ”StickyWSD” – a world-fixed positioning strategy – and evaluate its impact on quantitative measures compared to screen-fixed positioning. Results from a user study conducted in a virtual reality driving simulator (N = 23) suggest that the dynamic world-fixed positioning technique shows increased performance and lowered error rates as well as take-over times. We conclude that the ”StickyWSD” approach offers lot of potential for WSDs that should be researched further.

TTT: Time Synchronization Method by Time Distortion for VR Training including Rapidly Moving Objects

  • Natsuki Hamanishi
  • Jun Rekimoto

Providing an experience that includes high-speed objects, such as tennis balls, with a virtual reality (VR) training environment might provide efficient training for trainers but is challenging to achieve. Because of the drawing performance of the display, high-speed objects are perceived as poor visual information more than in reality, such as images in a stroboscope. The faster the object, the more noticeable it becomes, and the harder it is to perceive it correctly. Therefore, if the training is performed at the actual speed, the perception becomes more difficult than real space training due to the low reproduction accuracy. To solve this problem, we propose the computational time-space that controls high-speed objects in VR space, based on the user’s body movement. The method facilitates the perception of fast-moving objects by synchronizing the time of the ball with the movement of the body.

Understanding Enjoyment in VR Games with GameFlow

  • Penny Sweetser
  • Zane Rogalewicz
  • Qingyang Li

In this paper, we report on a work in progress project that aims to understand affordances and inhibiters of enjoyment in virtual reality (VR) video games. We apply the GameFlow model to review and analyse VR and non-VR versions of the same games to identify differences in enjoyment. Our approach includes conducting expert reviews using the GameFlow model, as well as conducting qualitative analysis on video game reviews, using GameFlow as a conceptual foundation. In this paper, we report our initial findings for the game Superhot. Our ongoing work evaluates a selection of games to map opportunities and pitfalls when designing games for VR.

UniVResity: Face-to-Face Class Participation for Remote Students using Virtual Reality

  • Krzysztof Pietroszek
  • Chao Cheng Lin

We describe a prototype of the virtual reality remote classroom participation system called UniVResity. UniVResity mirrors in virtual reality the ongoing face-to-face classroom activities, taking into account potentially low bandwidth data connection and lack of VR equipment in class. Our system attempts to combine the benefits of online education and face-to-face education, and makes face-to-face learning more accessible.

Vertical Locomotion in VR Using Full Body Gestures

  • Vineet Kamboj
  • Tuhin Bhuyan
  • Jayesh S. Pillai

Virtual Reality experiences today are majorly based on horizontal locomotion. In these experiences, movement in the virtual space is accomplished using teleportation, gaze input or tracking in physical space which is limited to a certain extent. Our work focuses on intuitive interactions for vertical locomotion involving both hands and feet. Such an instance of vertical locomotion is - ladder climbing. In this paper, we present an interaction technique for climbing a ladder in Virtual Reality (VR). This technique is derived from the natural motions of the limbs while climbing a ladder in reality, adhering to safe climbing practices. The developed interaction can be used in training experiences as well as gaming experiences. Preliminary evaluation of our interaction technique showed positive results across dimensions like - learnability, natural mapping, and intuitiveness.

Virtual Immersive Educational Systems:The case of 360° video and co-learning design.

  • Konstantinos Koumaditis
  • Francesco Chinello

The focus of this research is to depict the design process of a cost-effective, robust but user-friendly Virtual Immersive Educational (VIE) system. Thus, assist researchers, instructors and designers in identifying an effective method to design VIE systems. In this report, we describe our initial steps to design such a system in order to educate engineering students on the basic health and safety guidelines of safe interaction with a robotic arm. To do so, a set of 360° videos have been designed, developed and tested.

Visualizing Convolutional Neural Networks with Virtual Reality

  • Annika Wohlan
  • Nico Hochgeschwender
  • Nadine Meissler

Software systems and components are increasingly based on machine learning methods, such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Thus, there is a growing need for common programmers and machine learning newcomers to understand the general functioning of these algorithms. However, as neural networks are complex in nature, novel presentation means are required to enable rapid access to the functionality. For that purpose, this paper examines how CNNs can be visualized in Virtual Reality. A first exploratory study has confirmed that our visualization approach is both intuitive to use and conductive to learning.

Where to Place the Camera

  • Sylvia Rothe
  • Vanessa Sarakiotis
  • Heinrich Hussmann

This paper describes aspects which are important for camera positioning in cinematic virtual reality. For our findings, we took a closer look at proxemics, the study on how humans behave in regard to space and distances. We explored well-known shot sizes used in traditional filmmaking and put them in relation to proxemics distances. The results were adapted to camera distances in cinematic virtual reality.

WiredSwarm: High Resolution Haptic Feedback Provided by a Swarm of Drones to the User’s Fingers for VR interaction

  • Evgeny Tsykunov
  • Dzmitry Tsetserukou

We propose a concept of a novel interaction strategy for providing rich haptic feedback in Virtual Reality (VR), when each user’s finger is connected to micro-quadrotor with a wire. Described technology represents the first flying wearable haptic interface. The solution potentially is able to deliver high resolution force feedback to each finger during fine motor interaction in VR. The tips of tethers are connected to the centers of quadcopters under their bottom. Therefore, flight stability is increasing and the interaction forces are becoming stronger which allows to use smaller drones.

SESSION: Demo Abstracts

ALS-SimVR: Advanced Life Support Virtual Reality Training Application

  • Nathan Moore
  • Soojeong Yoo
  • Naseem Ahmadpour
  • Russel Tommy
  • Martin Brown
  • Philip Poronnik

The delivery of ongoing training and support to Advanced Life Support (ALS) teams poses significant resourcing and logistical challenges. A reduced exposure to cardiac arrests and mandated re-accreditation pose further challenges for educators to overcome. This work presents the ALS-SimVR (Advanced Life Support Simulation in VR) application. The application is intended for use as a supplementary training and refresher asset for ALS team leaders. The purpose of the application is to allow critical care clinicians to rehearse the role of ALS Team leader in their own time and location of choice. The application was developed for the Oculus-Go and ported to the Oculus-Quest. The application is also supported for a desktop and server based streaming release.

AssessAR: An Augmented Reality Based Environmental Impact Assessment Framework

  • Rohit Mehra
  • Vibhu Saujanya Sharma
  • Vikrant Kaulgud
  • Sanjay Podder

Human activities can have a lasting impact on the environment and society. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) which focusses on evaluating the impact of proposed developmental projects on the environment, helps in transparent decision-making and involves multiple stakeholders. However, EIA is data and effort-intensive and often becomes complex and long-drawn. Moreover, EIA is currently performed using primarily two-dimensional traditional mediums which could be vastly restrictive and difficult to navigate and comprehend. Here, we present an immersive approach which can create 3D interactive elements, modelling the real-world using augmented/mixed reality. Because of the inherent benefits of using three-dimensional representations and associated real-world interactions, we posit that our approach will facilitate better and faster, collaboration-enabled analysis of a developmental project proposal, thereon reducing processing time and promoting high fidelity.

Development of MirrorShape: High Fidelity Large-Scale Shape Rendering Framework for Virtual Reality

  • Aleksey Fedoseev
  • Nikita Chernyadev
  • Dzmitry Tsetserukou

Today there is a high variety of haptic devices capable of providing tactile feedback. Although most of existing designs are aimed at realistic simulation of the surface properties, their capabilities are limited in attempts of displaying shape and position of virtual objects.

This paper suggests a new concept of distributed haptic display for realistic interaction with virtual object of complex shape by a collaborative robot with shape display end-effector. MirrorShape renders the 3D object in virtual reality (VR) system by contacting the user hands with the robot end-effector at the calculated point in real-time. Our proposed system makes it possible to synchronously merge the position of contact point in VR and end-effector in real world. This feature provides presentation of different shapes, and at the same time expands the working area comparing to desktop solutions.

The preliminary user study revealed that MirrorShape was effective at reducing positional error in VR interactions. Potentially this approach can be used in the virtual systems for rendering versatile VR objects with wide range of sizes with high fidelity large-scale shape experience.

DexController : Hand-Held Controller Recognizing Grasp-Pose and Grasp-Force in Virtual Reality Defense Game

  • HyeonBeom Yi
  • Jiwoo Hong
  • Woohun Lee

We developed a hand-held controller named DexController, leveraging grasp as an additional input modality for virtual reality(VR) game. The pressure-sensitive surface of DexController could recognize two different grasp-poses (i.e. precision grip and power grip) and detect grasp-force. For demonstration, we designed a VR defense game in which players should attack different virtual enemies using the proper weapon with a proper level of force. User study confirmed that utilizing meaningful information of grasping facilitates natural mapping with game contents, which led VR game users to experience enhanced presence and enjoyment.

Dynamic Virtual Proteins: Visualization, Interaction and Collaboration in Virtual Reality

  • Jean-Marc Gauthier
  • Ian McGrath
  • Jagdish Suresh Patel

Emotion Evoking Art Exhibition in VR

  • Kyungjin Yoo
  • Nick Gold

Many museums today lack an aspect of technology that will attract younger visitors to visit the art. By implementing Virtual Reality into art museum solves this problem. Virtual Reality is a popular phenomenon that attracts many viewers and is growing every day. Art museums want to express emotion through their art and Virtual Reality can evoke that emotion more. By creating a virtual museum that not only has all the art on display but also is set an outdoor environment such as a garden or a dark forest will further enhance the emotion. If a piece of art is supposed to show warmth or positive feelings, why not place it in a garden? If the art is supposed to show darkness or cold why not place it in a dead forest? Using Virtual Reality allows us to place art in these environments so further museum goal of expressing emotion.

Extended Reality for Chronic Pain Relief

  • Jiaheng Wang
  • Craig Anslow

Chronic pain is ongoing pain lasting for long periods of time after the initial injury or disease has healed. Chronic pain is difficult to treat and can affect the daily lives of patients. Distraction therapy is a proven way of relieving pain by redirecting the focus of patients’ attention. Virtual reality is an effective platform for distraction therapy as it immerses the user visually, aurally, and even somewhat physically in a virtual world detached from reality. There is little research done on the effects that physical interactions have on pain management. This project aims to evaluate different types of extended reality (XR) interactions, including full body movement, for chronic pain patients to determine which is the best for pain relief. We are building a prototype for participants to interact both mentally and physically and measuring the reduction in subjective pain ratings at various points of the XR experience.

Interactive Visualization of Painting Data with Augmented Reality

  • Kyungjin Yoo
  • Dean Foster

Exploration of Augmented Reality technologies has increased substantially and the increase in both popularity and technological maturity has also led to several applications being developed for educational and museum environments. Specifically, a greater focus has been placed upon creating memorable experiences that both attract and educate museum patrons. Attempts to do this involve creating both Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality experiences, such as having users enter into immersive worlds that demonstrate the history of a certain time period, or applications that overlay life-like models of those animals in the very room the user is standing in. Many of these experiences are quite exceptional but begin to lack in variety when moving towards the art gallery, and mainly focus on making painting information more accessible. In an attempt to address this, this project outlines the design and evaluation of a proof-of-concept meant to study if adding interaction through Augmented Reality to paintings themselves would be both technologically feasible and desirable.

Layered Horizons: a Geospatial Humanities Research Platform

  • Andrew Burrell
  • Rachel Hendery

In this demo we showcase Layered Horizons, a Virtual Reality (VR) experience we have developed for use in an ARC-funded research project, Waves of Words: Mapping and Modelling Australia’s Pacific Past. This platform allows users to connect different geospatial datasets (for our purposes, from the humanities and social sciences) into layers that can then be explored by the use of natural gesture and body movement. This kind of interaction design in VR takes full advantage of the media’s affordances, without relying on metaphors from other interactive media, yet being familiar enough as to engender intuitive and meaningful use. We demonstrate how the platform is currently being used to connect linguistic data (word lists) with archaeological data (e.g. on the spread of bananas through the Asia-Pacific region, or canoe styles found in different locations) and anthropological data (e.g. shared cultural features like chieftainship systems or kinship systems). Taking into account what we also know about Pacific navigation and simulated canoe travel, we can therefore build a complex layered map of the region over time that allows us to better discover probable human migration and contact patterns.

OORT: An Air-flow based Cooling System for Long-term Virtual Reality Sessions

  • Hubert Kloskowski
  • Daniel Medeiros
  • Johannes Schoning

In this paper, we present OORT, a cooling system for head-mounted displays (HMDs) that improves wearing comfort by decreasing skin temperatures of the facial areas covered by the headset. The integrated cooling system consists of an electronically controlled fan blower. The fan compartment is integrated into an hmd padding element with custom-designed air flow channels that provide cool air circulation around the covered facial regions. We report on the design and implementation of OORT as a viable way to provide thermal comfort during long-term virtual reality experiences.

PillowVR: Virtual Reality in Bed

  • Doil Kwon
  • Hyeonah Choi
  • Hyung Jun Cho
  • Juyoung Lee
  • Gerard Kim

We demonstrate PillowVR, virtual reality framework that integrates the smartphone, magnifier and sensors into a pillow/cushion for immersive VR experience in bed. PillowVR is applied for presenting immersive bed time stories to children to help them go to sleep and therefore its interaction was designed to minimize excessive bodily movements – only simple back-of-the head pressure events are used to browse the content. PillowVR illustrates shows how VR can be more woven into our daily lives inexpensively and naturally by customizing the set up and interaction for the specific task and experience.

The actual demonstration of PillowVR would be very simple (as intended). In this paper, we can watch 360° video because viewpoint can be switching in “Non Ready” state. Our team will place an exercise pad or long picnic chair (instead of an actual bed) in the demo area. The user will enact the whole process as if being at home from the very start – sit/lie on the chair, insert the smartphone, wear the PillowVR, browse the content, pretend as if fallen to sleep, and assess the experience from the beginning to the very end (when one wakes up in the morning).

Real Time Point Cloud Self-Avatar With A Single RGB-D Camera

  • Hela Ridha-Mahfoudhi
  • Nguyen-Thong Dang

This paper presents a method for generating in real-time a self-avatar using a single RGB-D Camera. The self-avatar was presented under the form of a point cloud, retrieved thanks to a Kinect V2. The method included smoothing, filtering, segmenting and remapping point data presenting the user's body in real-time. The point cloud avatar in the third and the first person view can be generated.

Spatially Accurate Generative Music with AR Drawing

  • Kyungjin Yoo
  • Eli Schwelling

Recent experiments in semi-automatically generating ambient music have yielded emotionally affecting results, leading scientists and musicians alike to develop and experiment with computational systems for creating audible art with varying degrees of success. Most of these systems are based either in analogue technology such as classic tape-reel recording systems or digital systems like virtual synthesizers triggered by a combination of developer-defined values and random number generation. In this paper, I outline the conceptual reasoning behind and development of one such generative music system which uses a simple but versatile virtual synthesizer to generate sound and sequences of repeating randomly generated notes drawn by the user in augmented reality to formulate the patterns and spatial origin of each sound contributing to the entire generative piece.

Text Entry Method for Immersive Virtual Environments Using Curved Keyboard

  • Naoki Yanagihara
  • Buntarou Shizuki
  • Shin Takahashi

In this paper, we introduce a curved QWERTY keyboard, bent spherically in front of the user, to facilitate 3D word-gesture text entry in immersive virtual environments. Using the curved keyboard, the number of candidate words in the 3D word-gesture text entry is reduced compared with that using a planar keyboard. In the pilot study, the text entry performance of the first author was 21.0 WPM (SD = 5.06), with a total error rate of 26.0% (SD = 15.2).

Virtual environment for processing medial axis representations of 3D nanoscale reconstructions of brain cellular structures

  • Daniya Boges
  • Corrado Cali'
  • Pierre J. Magistretti
  • Markus Hadwiger
  • Ronell Sicat
  • Marco Agus

We present a novel immersive environment for the interactive analysis of nanoscale cellular reconstructions of rodent brain samples acquired through electron microscopy. The system is focused on medial axis representations (skeletons) of branched and tubular structures of brain cells, and it is specifically designed for: i) effective semi-automatic creation of skeletons from surface-based representations of cells and structures ii) fast proofreading, i.e., correcting and editing of semi-automatically constructed skeleton representations, and iii) useful exploration, i.e., measuring, comparing, and analyzing geometric features related to cellular structures based on medial axis representations. The application runs in a standard PC-tethered virtual reality (VR) setup with a head mounted display (HMD), controllers, and tracking sensors. The system is currently used by neuroscientists for performing morphology studies on sparse reconstructions of glial cells and neurons extracted from a sample of the somatosensory cortex of a juvenile rat.

VR Minecraft for Art

  • Kyungjin Yoo
  • Ryan Havel
  • Nikhil Patel

Art museums are becoming very boring to many people especially to the younger generation. The purpose of this project is to try to make a new type of art museum, one that is engaging and interactive. This project aims to answer the research question: Can a VR Minecraft museum enhance the user experience by giving them something that a typical art museum can’t? To answer this question, we’ve create a VR art museum within Minecraft and added features to make it more interactive and interesting. A more engaging environment is a great atmosphere to want to learn more. A scavenger hunt was added to the art museum to give the player a reason to walk around the entire museum. The player can build a sculpture after he/she completes the scavenger hunt which allows the player to be creative and imaginative. The user is then provided with different colored blocks to create a painting of his/her own. In order to answer the research question, we demoed the museum to a few people and then interviewed them. Their answers were very positive towards the VR Minecraft museum which leads me to believe that a VR Minecraft museum can indeed enhance the user experience.